A system of procedures for developing education
1- Early ID models based on behaviorism
2- General Systems theory become another fundamental tenet f ID.
Nine characteristics GST: Systematic: adapting rules and procedures as a way to move through a process.
Systemic: application of the creative problem-solving methods.
Responsive: accepting whatever goals are established
Interdependence: all elements within a system are connected and depend on each other.
Redundancy: duplicate processes and duplicate procedures to prevent from failure
Dynamic: system can adjust to changing conditions.
Cybernetic: elements communicate among themselves
Synergistic: all together elements achieve better than one can
Creativity: use of special human talents
ADDIE: based on a systematic product development
Analyze: needs assessment, identifying a problem and stating a goal.
Design: writing objectives, specifying learning activities and media,
Develop: preparing student and instruction materials
Implement: delivering the instruction in the setting which it was designed
Evaluate: both formative evalution: involves collecting data to identify needed revisions, summative evalution: collecting data to assess overall effectiveness, and revision: making necessary changes based on the formative evaluation data.
In ADDIE, one can move back and forth, doesn’t have to be step by step.
ADDIE is iterative and self correcting
Characteristic of ID:
1- student centered: learners can be given to select their own learning objectives
2- goal oriented:
3- focuses on meaningful performance: instead of learners recalling information, ID prepares learners for complex behaviors and solvings of authentic problems
4- assumes outcomes can be measured in a valid way:opposite of a paper and pencil test, observer observing learner’s performance with a checklist
5- empirical, iterative, self-correcting: data is the heart of ID. Not linear, or sequential
6- team effort
Pebble-in-the-Pond Approach (Merrill)
For whole problems or task
An alteration to traditional ID
Traditional ID starts with some abstract representation and has actual content is delayed until the development of the ID process
1- casting in a pebble, identify the problem
2- identify the progression of such problems
3- identify the component knowledge and skill required
4- determine the instructional strategy
5- interface design
4C/ID model:(Merrienboer and Kirschner)
ten steps approach:
-specifying a series of learning tasks
-learner will perform a simpler version of the whole skill and gradually move on to complex versions.