History of Instructional Media
Instructional media: physical means via which instruction is presented to learners.
-prior to the twentieth century, three primary means of instruction: teacher, chalkboard, and textbook
School museums: portable exhibits, stereographs, slides, films, charts - not intended to supplant the teacher
Visual instructional movement and instructional films: lantern slide projectors and stereograph viewers. Thomas Edison argued that motion picture will replace textbooks. 1914-1923, movement grew
Audiovisual Instruction movement and Instructional Radio: broadcasting, sound motion pictures, sound recordings - 1920s - 1930s
Radio gained a big attention
World War II : instructional movements slowed. But large amount of training films and filmstrips were used in military. Overhead projectors were produced.
Instructional Television: most important that affects the audiovisual movement was interest in television. Increase in 1950s -funded by Ford Foundation. In 1960s, the interest is declined.
it is been realized that instructional television had small potential in practice. Reasons include:
- the teacher resistance to change: top-down change: change by school administrators with little or no input from teachers.
- the quality of the tv programs.
- the expense of installing and maintaining tv systems in schools and failure to provide teachers with guidance
Computers for Instructional Purposes: In 1950s at IBM, computer-aided instruction (CAI) was done- which had a little impact on education.
In 1984, Papert indicated that computer was going to be a catalyst of very deep and radical change in educational system.
Recent Developments: Training in companies done by instructional media
Social media used in higher education for instructional purposes
read and create blogs, wikis, view online videos and listen podcasts
use of distance learning in higher education
availability of technology has increased in first decade of 21st century
instead of technology being used in 1990s as a drill and practice, in 21st century, technology used for:
-solve problems, analyze data, perform calculations, develop multimedia presentations, create art/music/movies/webcasts/graphics/visual displays.
-major role in US military
Reasons for instructional technology to increase in education:
- low cost
- easy accessibility of computers
-increased interactive capabilities - Moore (1989) describes three types of interactivity:
1- between learners and instructional content
2- between learners and the instructor
3- among learners themselves
Nowadays, via chat rooms, email, bulletin boards, learners can interact with the instructor and themselves as well as the content.
- use of social media lets learners share information and acquire new skills and knowledge
History of Instructional Design
Origins: World War II
The Programmed Instruction Movement: mid-1950s through 1960s. Skinner's ideas regarding requirements of increasing human learning and the desired characteristics of effective instructional materials - programmed instructional materials - should present instruction in small steps, require active responses to frequent questions, provide immediate feedback, allow for learner self-pacing.
Popularization of Behavioral Objectives: identifying specific objectives learners would be expected to attain.
Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives(1956) - within the cognitive domain there are various types of learning outcomes and that there was a hierarchical relationship between the various types of outcomes.
The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement: could be used
- to assess students entry-level behavior
- to determine the extent to which students had acquired the behaviors an instructional program was designed to teach.
Robert M. Gagne: Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis:
1965 - The Conditions of Learning, by Gagne: describes five domains of learning outcomes: verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, cognitive strategies,
Sputnik: The Indirect Launching of Formative Evaluation: a space satellite, launched in 1957, have effects on instructional design
formative evaluation: try out the drafts of instructional materials with learners prior to the final form of the materials and revise them
summative evaluation: testing the instructional materials after they are in the final form.
Early Instructional Design Models:
concepts developed: task analysis, objective specification, criterion-referenced testing
terms: instructional design, instructional development, systematic instruction, instructional system.
1970s: Burgeoning of Interest in the Systems Approach:
interest in personal computers in 1980s has major effect on instructional design
1990s: Recognizing the Importance of Performance:
interest in constructivist views of teaching and learning has major influence on instructional design
authentic learning tasks, that reflect the complexity of the real world environment in which the learners will be using the skills they are learning
21st Century: e-Learning and Informal Learning: Internet as a means of presenting instructions to learners
Informal methods, as a means of improving learning and performance in the workplace
Social Media to share knowledge ad skills as an example of informal methods